Friday, May 22, 2020

Omo Kibish (Ethiopia) - Oldest Known Early Modern Human

Omo Kibish is the name of an archaeological site in Ethiopia, where was found the earliest examples of our own hominin species, about 195,000 years old. Omo is one of several sites found within the ancient rock formation called Kibish, itself along the Lower Omo River at the base of the Nkalabong Range in southern Ethiopia. Two hundred thousand years ago, the habitat of the lower Omo River basin was similar to what it is today, although moister and less arid away from the river. Vegetation was dense and a regular supply of water created a mix of grassland and woodland vegetation. Omo I Skeleton Omo Kibish I, or simply Omo I, is the partial skeleton found from Kamoya’s Hominid Site (KHS), named after the Kenyan archaeologist who discovered Omo I, Kamoya Kimeu. The human fossils recovered in the 1960s and in the early 21st century include a skull, several pieces from the upper limbs and shoulder bones, several bones of the right hand, the lower end of the right leg, a piece of the left pelvis, fragments of both lower legs and the right foot, and some rib and vertebrae fragments. The body mass for the hominin has been estimated at approximately 70 kilograms (150 pounds), and although it is not certain, most evidence indicates Omo was female. The hominin stood somewhere between 162-182 centimeters (64-72 inches) tall--the leg bones are not sufficiently intact enough to give a closer estimate. The bones suggest Omo was a young adult at the time of her death. Omo is currently classified as anatomically modern human. Artifacts with Omo I Stone and bone artifacts were found in association with Omo I. They included a variety of vertebrate fossils, dominated by birds and bovids. Nearly 300 pieces of flaked stone were found in the vicinity, predominantly fine-grained crypto-crystalline silicate rocks, such as jasper, chalcedony, and chert. The most common artifacts are debris (44%) and flakes and flake fragments (43%). A total of 24 cores was found; half the cores are Levallois cores. Primary stone tool making methods used at KHS produced Levallois flakes, blades, core-trimming elements, and pseudo-Levallois points. There are 20 retouched artifacts, including an ovate handaxe, two basalt hammerstones, sidescrapers, and backed knives. Over the area a total of 27 artifact refits have been found, suggesting a potential slope wash or north-trending sediment slump before the sites burial or some purposeful stone knapping/tool discard behaviors. Excavation History Excavations in the Kibish formation were first conducted by the International Palaeontological Research Expedition to the Omo Valley in the 1960s led by Richard Leakey. They found several ancient anatomically modern human remains, one of them the Omo Kibish skeleton. In the early 21st century, a new international team of researchers returned to Omo and found additional bone fragments, including a femur fragment which conjoined with a piece collected in 1967. This team also conducted Argon isotope dating and modern geological studies that identified the age of the Omo I fossils as 195,000 /- 5,000 years old. The Lower Valley of the Omo was inscribed to the World Heritage List in 1980. Dating Omo The earliest dates on the Omo I skeleton were quite controversial--they were uranium-series age estimates on Etheria freshwater mollusk shells that provided a date of 130,000 years ago, which in the 1960s was deemed too early for Homo sapiens. Serious questions arose in the latter half of the 20th century about the reliability of any dates on mollusks; but in the early 21st century Argon dates on the strata in which Omo lay returned ages between 172,000 and 195,000, with the most likely date nearer 195,000 years ago. A possibility then arose that Omo I had been an intrusive burial into an older layer. Omo I was finally direct-dated by laser ablation elemental Uranium, Thorium, and Uranium-series isotope analysis (Aubert et al. 2012), and that date confirms its age as 195,000/- 5000. In addition, a correlation of the makeup of the KHS volcanic  tuff to the Kulkuletti Tuff in the Ethiopian Rift Valley indicates the skeleton is likely aged 183,000 or older: even that is 20,000 years older than the next oldest AMH representative in the Herto formation also in Ethiopia (154,000-160,000). Sources This definition is part of the Guide to the Middle Paleolithic. Assefa Z, Yirga S, and Reed KE. 2008. The large-mammal fauna from the Kibish Formation. Journal of Human Evolution 55(3):501-512.Aubert M, Pike AWG, Stringer C, Bartsiokas A, Kinsley L, Eggins S, Day M, and Grà ¼n R. 2012. Confirmation of a late middle Pleistocene age for the Omo Kibish 1 cranium by direct uranium-series dating. Journal of Human Evolution 63(5):704-710.Brown FH, McDougall I, and Fleagle JG. 2012. Correlation of the KHS Tuff of the Kibish Formation to volcanic ash layers at other sites, and the age of early Homo sapiens (Omo I and Omo II). Journal of Human Evolution 63(4) la Torre I. 2004. Omo Revisited: Evaluating the Technological Skills of Pliocene Hominids. Current Anthropology 45(4):439-466.McDougall I, Brown FH, and Fleagle JG. 2005. Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia. Nature 433:733-736.McDougall I, Brown FH, and Fleagle JG. 2008. Sapropels and the age of hominins Omo I and II, Kibish, Ethiopia. Journal of Human E volution 55(3):409-420.Pearson OM, Royer DF, Grine FE, and Fleagle JG. 2008. A description of the Omo I postcranial skeleton, including newly discovered fossils. Journal of Human Evolution 55(3):421-437.Rightmire GP. 2008. Homo in the Middle Pleistocene: Hypodigms, variation, and species recognition. Evolutionary Anthropology 17(1):8-21.Shea JJ. 2008. The Middle Stone Age archaeology of the Lower Omo Valley Kibish Formation: excavations, lithic assemblages, and inferred patterns of early Homo sapiens behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 55(3):448-485.Sisk ML, and Shea JJ. 2008. Intrasite spatial variation of the Omo Kibish Middle Stone Age assemblages: Artifact refitting and distribution patterns. Journal of Human Evolution 55(3):486-500.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Want to Know More About Essay Topics Science?

Want to Know More About Essay Topics Science? Definitions of Essay Topics Science 1 important thing you ought to do when writing your essay is to allow it to be personal. An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and have a position on it. Researching the topic permits you to find out more about what fascinates you, and should you pick something you truly like, writing the essay will be more enjoyable. The very best topic for your essay is one which is aligned with your subject of study. Instead of just immediately writing about your argumentative essay topic, you should first think about what it is you are likely to put back on your paper through a procedure of brainstorming and pre-writing. Presenting The Research Paper Research papers must be presented well to make the best effects. Curriculum proposal topics is a means to try. Not all research paper topics are made equal, and you would like to guarantee you select an excellent topic before you commence writing. If you need to compose your whole essay in 1 day, do your very best to give yourself breaks so you don't burn out. Only some of them is able to submit a paper in time and without penalties. Students lead busy lives and frequently forget about a coming deadline. It's important to select debatable argumentative essay topics as you need opposing points which you can counter to your own points. Don't make it rather complicated. Individual schools sometimes need supplemental essays. The college essay is among the most crucial facets of your college application. On our site you will discover a great deal more useful distinctive information that is certain to be helpful for junior and higher school kids from, like common home task essay about Hamlet, in addition to, for instance, application essays for college for future students. If you're looking for college essay examples, here's a great one below. Life, Death, and Essay Topics Science There are a number of thumb rules for argumentative essay subjects to prevent clashes, yet earning a point at the exact same moment. At precisely the same time, it's a fantastic persuasive essay idea. While you're just beginning to compose essays, you shouldn't struggle attempting to produce something to discuss. Such essays shall have a good deal of quotations, based just on facts and laws, and show no more than the actual picture of the situation. Inspiration to mak e your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn't difficult to discover. The option of compare and contrast essay topics isn't a simple task because you have to clearly show your analytical skills. Otherwise, you have to look at a number of the easy compare and contrast essay topics on the many scientific innovations. It's possible to go for an intriguing topic from any area of science. If you are supposed to compose an argumentative essay, the very first thing you should do is to understand its chief features and structure. A fine idea may be to pick out a subject, which has a stable selection of accessible info and nonetheless sufficient room for a private research. It's possible to observe a list of 25 topics you can pick from the one which best fits your assignment. Once can surf the internet to find a few examples of argumentative essay topics, however, there are websites which help to locate topics depending on the keywords. The Tried and True Method for Essay Topics Science in Step by Step Detail Controversial issues are happening all of the time, all you have to do is turn on the news and you'll be able to locate a vast choice of topics to pick from. Since you can see, lots of the topics listed are new and deal with the present issues happening in the World today. The attractiveness of Shakespearean works is that every one of them conveys a one of a k ind social message that is true even today. All things considered, you can observe that writing a persuasive essay isn't a brain surgery. On our site, you can locate many tips for themes for an argumentative essay. Sure, with this kind of an enormous number of topics to select from, picking just one may be challenging. Popular themes for academic papers can be seen on our site also. A Secret Weapon for Essay Topics Science Good persuasive essay topics need to be persuasive. Moral argumentative essay topics are a few of the simplest to get carried away with. There are argumentative essay topics. Recent argumentative essay topics that are related to society is going to do. You don't need to acquire super technical with legal argumentative essays, but make sure you do your homework on what the present laws about your favorite topic actually say. Analyzing a present event appears to be a favorite topic chosen for argumentative essays. There are several interesting and challenging Shakespeare essay topics to select from. Tackle as many essays as possible and cement your spot among the famed essay writers on the planet. A proposal essay is quite straightforward to comprehend. Write a succinct biography of your favourite author and discuss why the author you prefer.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Beauty Defined Free Essays

What is beauty? How can an abstract concept such as beauty be defined? That question has been pondered for ages. An anonymous person once said â€Å"Beauty is in the eye of the beholder†. Beauty means something different to everyone but there is a general agreed-upon standard of beauty in our society. We will write a custom essay sample on Beauty Defined or any similar topic only for you Order Now As defined by Merriam-Webster’s dictionary, beauty is â€Å"the quality or aggregate of qualities in a person or thing that gives pleasure to the senses or pleasurably exalts the mind or spirit : LOVELINESS †. It has also been defined as â€Å"the phenomenon of the experience of pleasure, through the perception of balance and proportion of stimulus. It involves the cognition of a balanced form and structure that elicits attraction and appeal towards a person, animal, object, scene, music, idea, etc†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The philosophical discipline of aesthetics aims to understand the nature and meaning of beauty. Two kinds of beauty were distinguished by composer and critic Robert Schumann ; natural beauty and poetic beauty. Natural beauty is found in the examination of nature and poetic beauty in man’s cognizance. According to Schumann, in music or other art forms, both types of beauty exist. A familiar theory holds that beauty is the appearance of things and people that are good. Our society judges the physically attractive as â€Å"good†. The popular quote â€Å"beauty is in the eye of the beholder, â€Å" maintains that beauty is entirely personal. Beauty can be found in nature as well where â€Å"beauty as goodness† holds true. An Alaskan glacier, a ruggedly dry mountain range, or a field of wildflowers can all be said to be beautiful. Most people find beauty in nature, from a newly fallen leaf in autumn, a tadpole metamorphosing to a frog, or a butterfly fluttering in a field. Formal studies done in the United States have discovered that facial symmetry is a key factor in determining the beauty of human appearance. To have facial symmetry suggests that a person has no apparent inherited flaws. Other studies suggest that a specific height and length of cheekbones is a strong indicator of physical beauty. These studies were conducted by scientists who asked volunteers to rate a series of photographs on the basis of beauty. The attributes common to all images rated beautiful were then picked out. Dr. Devendra Singh, of the University of Texas at Austin, discovered the waist-to-hip ratio, which is considered an indication of beauty in women of most cultures. This holds that a woman whose waist circumference is 70% of her hip circumference is considered beautiful and is also an indicator of her fertility. Greek philosophers were the earliest to theorize beauty. Pythagorus saw a strong connection between mathematics and beauty. The Pythagorean School maintained that objects proportioned to the â€Å"golden ratio† seemed more attractive. People whose facial features are symmetric and proportioned are ranked as more attractive than those who are not, according to the golden ratio. The ancient Indians believed that anything that is always new is beautiful. A survey conducted by London Guildhall University of 11,000 people showed that (subjectively) good-looking people earn more. Less attractive people earned, on average, 13% less than more attractive people, while the penalty for overweight was around 5%. The term â€Å"beautiful people† is used to refer to those who closely follow trends in fashion, physical appearance, food, dining, wine, cars, and real estate, often at a considerable financial cost. Such people often mirror in appearance and consumer choices of the characteristics and purchases of rich Hollywood characters. Beauty is truly a subjective concept that is difficult to prove or define. How to cite Beauty Defined, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Using Your Own Data to Grow Your Online Visibility

If you’re looking for a new way to grab your audience’s attention and make your content stand out, the answer may already be in your hands. The data your company currently collects could provide a huge base of knowledge that you can use to create even more engaging content. The Power of Data Content that contains great data is effective because: It delivers real value: People want something they can’t find anywhere else when they read (or share) your content. So, if you can create content that contains original data, it will stand out. It boosts your authority: One goal of content marketing is to highlight your business’ expertise. Content that shows off how well your team works with industry-specific data can help reinforce your brand’s authority. It has SEO benefits: Data-driven content tends to be heavily shared and linked to by other publications, greatly growing your own visibility. This helps boost your SEO rankings, helping your company get even more visitors and potential shoppers. Companies Using Their Data Several companies are creating attention-grabbing content using their own trove of data; here are a few examples: Jawbone: The fitness tracker company collects massive amounts of data from people who wear their devices and they used that information to create an amazing analysis of sleep patterns in different cities. Eye-catching data visualizations provide a variety of insights. For example, New York City may be called the â€Å"city that never sleeps,† but its residents actually have some of the earliest bedtimes of the seven cities in the study! OKCupid: The dating site used ten years of data to come up with a study of attraction and race. Even if you’re not in the dating scene, the article makes for an interesting read. Gain More Exposure It’s natural to look outside your company for trends and ideas to fuel your content. But many compelling insights can be found within your own data sets and analytics. There are millions of articles online, but storytelling with data can set your content apart from the clutter and get you more visibility. Embrace your data and add this powerful tool to your current content marketing strategy.

Friday, March 20, 2020

BJU Explorations in Literature Unit Three Review Essay Example

BJU Explorations in Literature Unit Three Review Essay Example BJU Explorations in Literature Unit Three Review Paper BJU Explorations in Literature Unit Three Review Paper Essay Topic: Literature hospitalization (of the authors son) inciting incident of Stopover in Queretaro as one gives, he should to expect to receive application that could NOT be made after reading Martin and Abraham Lincoln friendship is more powerful (than tribal hatred) main idea in The Buffalo dance Lushkoff protagonist in The Beggar flashback what Pete Stalling, the narrator in Most Valuable Player, uses to interrupt the action of the game to give background info she asks for food and a mirror the reader knows Johnsy is going to get well in The Last Leaf when she.. simile Came like an angel fierce and fast from Country Doctor, is what figure of speech? verbal irony how Lewis Gardner in How to Avoid Contact makes his point by using dead soldier(s) speaker of the poem In Flanders Fields Lord knows our needs even before we ask Him lesson we can learn from Mrs. Simss gift to Mother resolution point within the plot when the final outcome of the conflict is revealed plot series of incidents arranged to move the story toward a specific goal setting time and place in which a story takes place crisis turing point that brings about a change of fortune for the main character climax point when the story reaches the moment of highest emotional intensity autobiography an authors true account of his own life third-person (point-of-view) point-of-view that uses words like he, she, and it and no narrator is heard first-person (point-of-view) point-of view that reveals the thoughts of only one character or group of characters situational irony is revealed when the events of a story violate what is reasonably or normally expected Pete character in Most Valuable Player that is an example of a developing character Juan Martinez(brings the Beims to Dr. Pozo and makes sure they are taken care of) and Dr. Pozo (helped as much as he could even though the father, Jerrold Beim doubts he could really help his son) characterS from Stopover in Queretaro, whose generosity involved the giving of THEMSELVES Lincoln (took his time to talk to Martin and supplied Martins familys needs) character from Martin and Abraham Lincoln whose generosity involved the giving of himself Sheriff (risked a lot so Will can learn not to chose the life of being a bandit) character from Gold-Mounted Guns whose generosity involved the giving of himself Kass (gave Mary her prize, when Mary didnt actually win the prize) character from Mary whose generosity was misguided in some way or who committed ungenerous acts Andy and Tom (returned the fish that they stole) characterS from The Strangers That Came to Town whose generosity was misguided in some way or who committed ungenerous acts Mother (bought her daughter a suit that they lied about) character from Preachers Kids whose generosity was misguided in some way or who committed ungenerous acts O. Henry wrote The Last Leaf (his field was) Gods Earth what the grandfather in A Grain as Big as a Hens Egg said where the corn can grow like the big grain

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

10 Fascinating Facts About Grasshoppers

10 Fascinating Facts About Grasshoppers Famed fable writer Aesop portrayed the grasshopper as a neer do well who fiddled away his summer days without a thought to the future but in the real world, the destruction wreaked by grasshoppers on farming and ranching is far from a harmless parable. Although grasshoppers are extremely common, theres more to these summertime critters than meets the eye. Heres a list of 10 fascinating grasshopper-related facts. 1. Grasshoppers and Locusts Are One and the Same When we think of grasshoppers, most people recall pleasant childhood memories of trying to catch the jumping insects in meadows or backyards. Say the word locusts, however, and it brings to mind images of historic plagues raining down destruction on crops and devouring every plant in sight. Truth be told, grasshoppers and locusts are members of the same insect order. While certain species are commonly referred to grasshoppers and others as locusts, both creatures are short-horned members of the order Orthoptera. Jumping herbivores with shorter antennae are grouped into the suborder Caelifera, while their longer-horned brethren (crickets and katydids) belong to the suborder Ensifera. 2. Grasshoppers Have Ears on Their Bellies The grasshoppers auditory organs are found not on the head, but rather, on the abdomen. A pair of membranes that vibrate in response to sound waves are located one on either side of the first abdominal segment, tucked under the wings. This simple eardrum, called a tympanal organ, allows the grasshopper to hear the songs of its fellow grasshoppers. 3. Although Grasshoppers Can Hear, They Cant Distinguish Pitch  Very Well As with most insects, the grasshoppers auditory organs are simple structures. They can detect differences in intensity and rhythm, but not pitch. The male grasshoppers song isnt particularly melodic which is a good thing since females dont care whether or not a fellow can carry a tune. Each species of grasshopper produces a characteristic rhythm that distinguishes its song from others and enables courting males and females of a given species to find one another. 4. Grasshoppers Make Music by Stridulating or Crepitating If youre not familiar with those terms, dont worry. Its not all that complicated. Most grasshoppers stridulate, which simply means that they rub their hind legs against their forewings to produce their trademark tunes. Special pegs on the inside of the hind leg act like a percussion instrument of sorts when they come in contact with the thickened edge of the wing. The band-winged grasshoppers crepitate or loudly snap their wings as they fly. 5. Grasshoppers Catapult Themselves Into the Air If youve ever tried to catch a grasshopper, you know how far they can jump to flee danger. If humans could jump the way grasshoppers do, we would be able to easily leap the length of a football field. How do these insects jump so far? Its all in those big, back legs. A grasshoppers hind legs function like miniature catapults. In preparation for a jump, the grasshopper contracts its large flexor muscles slowly, bending its hind legs at the knee joint. A special piece of cuticle within the knee acts as a spring, storing up all the potential energy. The grasshopper then relaxes its leg muscles, allowing the spring to release its energy and fling the insect into the air. 6. Grasshoppers Can Fly Because grasshoppers have such powerful jumping legs, people sometimes dont realize that they also have wings. Grasshoppers use their jumping ability to give them a boost into the air but most are pretty strong fliers and make good use of their wings to escape predators. 7. Grasshoppers Cause Billions of Dollars in Damage to Food Crops Annually One lone grasshopper cant do too much harm, although it eats about half its body weight in plants each day- but when locusts swarm, their combined feeding habits can completely defoliate a landscape, leaving farmers without crops and people without food. In the U.S. alone, grasshoppers cause about $1.5 billion in damage to grazing lands each year. In 1954, a swarm of Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) consumed over 75 square miles of wild and cultivated plants in Kenya. 8. Grasshoppers Are an Important Source of Protein People have been consuming locusts and grasshoppers for centuries. According to the Bible, John the Baptist ate locusts and honey in the wilderness. Locusts and grasshoppers are a regular dietary component in local diets in many areas of Africa, Asia, and the Americas- and since theyre packed with protein, theyre an important nutritional staple as well. 9. Grasshoppers Existed Long Before Dinosaurs Modern-day grasshoppers descend from ancient ancestors that lived long before dinosaurs roamed the Earth. The fossil record shows that primitive grasshoppers first appeared during the Carboniferous period, more than 300 million years ago. Most ancient grasshoppers are preserved as fossils, although grasshopper nymphs (the second stage in the grasshopper lifestyle after the initial egg phase) are occasionally found in amber. 10. Grasshoppers  May Spit Liquid to Defend Themselves If youve ever handled grasshoppers, youve probably had a few of them spit brown liquid on you in protest. Scientists believe this behavior is a means of self-defense, and the liquid helps the insects repel predators. Some people say grasshoppers spit tobacco juice, probably because historically, grasshoppers have been associated with tobacco crops. Rest assured, however, the grasshoppers arent using you as a spittoon.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Environmental Awareness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Environmental Awareness - Essay Example The essay "Environmental awareness" shows us the current ecological situation. The understanding of environmental conditions can be boiled down into a painstakingly simple adage -â€Å"Live and let live†. Fortunately, across the world, the healthy awareness is increasing and the Welch Assembly Government has contributed for the cause in a proper way and their dedicated website echoes the same bold statement. In the end author concludes that the subject line that has been drawn in these topics is too diverse to end to a single point conclusion. In spite of that, from engineering point of view, these points can be summarized so that we may take steps out of that. For better climatic condition, one need to follow the stringent rules and the technology needs to be evolved out to match the situation. Air quality is to be monitored in much more stringent manner and vehicle and industrial carbon emission needs to be curbed. The same thing can be applicable for Chemical hazard and the problem out of that. The particular issue like radioactivity and the relevant protocol needs to be followed up. The huge industrial legacy of Wales area has left its pug mark in terms of contaminated land that keeps on bleeding. Water and flood management in one hand and on the other, the Bathing Water Quality monitoring also needs to be taken care of. The recycling technology needs to be overhauled. Still a messy process that has been followed and we are blissfully unaware of the consequences. The time is ripe enough to take these eminent steps.